About the Ranking
In the CHE University Ranking you can find valuable information for the choice of the right course of study / degree programme and the right university in Germany or Austria for you.
Features of the CHE University Ranking
Help for the choice of your study in Germany or Austria
From the CHE University Ranking you can get important information for the choice of the right subject and the right university in Germany or Austria for you.
There are several possibilites to make use of the ranking: You start into the ranking by selecting a subject and a type of degree. Subsequently you will get to the tabular view which lists all German and some selected Austrian universities offering this subject. On the basis of some preselected criteria you can see how they performed within the ranking.
In the graphical view you can find the universities which performed best within the criteria in the middle of the chart. By changing the criteria some universities will move towards the centre of the graphic while others are heading to the edge. You can easily change criteria through clicking. By clicking on the name of the university you are forwarded to the departments where more criteria and further information is published.
If you start via "subjects within the ranking" you will get to the portrait of the chosen subject. Here you will find specific information about the subject and you can get started with the tabular view of the ranking.
Another possibility to get into the Ranking is to choose UNIVERSITY TOWNS. By selecting a certain university town you can find interesting facts about the town, for example how many students live in a student dormitory. With a few clicks you get to detailed information about the universities, departments and study-programmes.
A special way of finding the right university for you is the comparison, which can be used for all subjects. With the comparison you can compare departments from universities and universities of applied science with each other and decide for yourself, which one fits your needs best.
To view the ranking lists and the comparison a registration is required. Of course it is free of charge. After entering your data you receive a confirmation code via e-mail, which you have to use to confirm your registration. You have to confirm your registration before your next visit to the site. If you have already registered, you can login with your e-mail-address and your selected password. If you want your ranking account to be deleted, simply send an informal message to email@example.com.
If the student survey has a low number of cases, even stricter standards are set for the acceptance in the Ranking and assignment to the middle group.
In order to continue to prevent the small departments from being systematically excluded from the survey, we decided, after intensive discussion, to stand by the minimum number of 15 opinions. However, we did introduce a number of methodological changes so that we can take borderline cases with low response rates out of the ranking: For departments with participation rates of between 15 and 30 students, an additional criterion was introduced for the assessment which specifies that the response rate must be no lower than 10%.
Even stricter standards have now been set for assigning the values in the middle group. As before, the individual indicators are also taken into consideration for assignment to the Top, Middle or Last group, thereby taking account of the deviation from the nationwide mean and the confidence interval. A new development is that two additional borders have been drawn around the nationwide mean. If the confidence interval is so broad that it extends beyond these borders, these values will not be included in the ranking, because it cannot be clearly assigned to a specific group. This applies particularly to departments with response rates of between 15 and 30.
(a) Small departments still have a chance to reach the ranking;
(b) The validity of the group's assignment is still assured, even in cases with low numbers of student opinions, borderline cases are removed from the ranking by the relevant indicator.
Criteria with thoroughly positive or hardly differentiated student opinions are not ranked.
The CHE University Ranking stands out in that as many valid indicators as possible can be drawn on for the ranking. Over the years, numerous departments have improved conditions for their students, also as a response to the assessments in the ranking. In some respects, it can be seen that Germany performs well throughout, and in some cases the students hardly give any poor assessments at all. For the CHE University Ranking, this means that no artificial differences are shown where non exist. This is why indicators that are assessed as good or better throughout are no longer included in the ranking. To ensure that the information on this continues to be maintained, the values without group assignment continue to be recorded in the web version of the ranking.
Similarly, no ranking group categories are made any more when the difference between the best and the worst value is less than 1.
Advantage: Ranking groups are only formed when clear differences exist; this makes it possible to adequately depict the differences without over-exaggerating them.
What is the target group for the CHE and DIE ZEIT University Ranking?
anybody who wants to take up a course of academic studies in Germany or Austria, but is uncertain about where
students who would like to change to another university
academics, researchers and university staff who want to know how their university performed in comparison with other institutions in Germany and Austria.
What's special about the CHE University Ranking?
The most comprehensive ranking to date Since 1998 over 130 universities and over 150 universities of applied sciences (Fachhochschulen) have been included in the CHE University Ranking. In the current ranking the judgements of about 200,000 students and about 3,000 professors are included.
Not an overall ranking, but a detailed analysis The ranking deliberately chooses not to add the results of the survey together to produce an overall points score. Why? Because there simply is no "best higher education institution", not in one subject and certainly not in all subjects. For example, a university may indeed be a leader in the field of research, but the equipment it offers its students may be miserable, or it may be strong in German Studies, but poor in Economics and Business Administration. Instead of crowning some presumed overall winner, we offer a multidimensional ranking. Several ranking (league) lists produced on the basis of quite different criteria paint a differentiated picture of the strengths and weaknesses of the individual universities.
League Groups instead of League Positions The CHE University Ranking has no "league positions" for the individual universities as commonly found in other rankings, but rather places the universities into one of three groups: Top Group, Middle Group or Bottom Group. The use of league positions bears the risk of minor differences produced by random fluctuations being misinterpreted as real differences. If the universities are positioned close to each other, there is also a chance that minimal differences can make up a lot of league positions. By contrast, CHE's League Group approach ensures that the top and the bottom groups deviate to a statistically significant extent from the arithmetic mean, which is also why we always arrange the universities in alphabetical order in the various league lists.
Subject Specificity The CHE University Ranking is exclusively subject specific. Just as universities are not all equally good, so there is no "the" best university. The universities' performance in the individual disciplines, subjects and departments differs far too greatly. Aggregation at the level of whole universities offers no useful information as a decision-making aid for prospective students who want to study a specific subject. It also obscures the differences between the subjects at a university, some of which are actually explicitly based on profile decisions. This is why the individual rankings are always subject specific.
Methodological Diversity Rankings should draw a differentiated picture of the universities from various perspectives. This is why, besides facts on the departments and degree programmes, the perspective of university teachers and students is also considered in the ranking. This produces a more differentiated view than rankings based solely on the survey of one group of persons (e.g. only students, only HR/personnel managers) and so allow subjective assessments and objective indicators to be contrasted.
Complete description of the methodology (in German)
Cataloque of Criteria
The decision for a university is based on a large number of criteria. The CHE University Ranking has up to 37 different assessment criteria (so-called Indicators) for each university. The Decision-Making Model allows them to be thematically summarised in nine modules. These Indicators are explained here.
Choose one of the modules first and then one of the criteria in this module!
The transition into the job market and the career orientation of the academic studies are important orientation points. The range of career-orientated events and the opinions of the students were determined.
Bachelor theses in cooperation with work environment
Percentage of bachelor theses that are compiled in cooperation with work environment
Contact with work environment
The indicator illustrates the practical orientation within the courses of study. It is based on information of the department / the faculty. The researched information includes descriptions of practical and project modules, internship, external staff members, these in co-operation with work environment.
Contact with work environment, bachelor's
The indicator illustrates the practical orientation within the courses of study. It is based on information of the department / the faculty. The researched information includes descriptions of practical and project modules, internship, external staff member, theses in co-operation with work environment.
Contact with work environment: Case studies
One evaluation criterion of the indicator "Contact with work environment"
Contact with work environment: Excursions
Subject-specific dimension of the indicator: Contact to work environment: Scope of excursions messured in ECTS
Contact with work environment: External staff members
One evaluation criterion of the indicator "Contact with work environment"
Contact with work environment: Internships
One evaluation criterion of the indicator "Contact with work environment"
Contact with work environment, master's
Practice-orientation of the degree course or courses, based on applied/project modules, internships and courses with professional practice relevance, external staff, theses in co-operation with work envoronment.
Contact with work environment: Theses in cooperation with work environment
One evaluation criterion of the indicator "Contact with work environment"
Intensive practical phase
Description of degree programmes with an intensive practical phase
Job market preparation
Students assessed the programmes offered by their college to promote the relevance to the professional field and jobs market. This includes information events on professional and support in looking for work placements among others; Index made up of several individual opinions, on a scale of 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad).
Master theses in cooperation with work environment
Percentage of master theses that are compiled in cooperation with work environment
Measures to promote employability
Describes the measures offered by the programme of studies which promote graduate employability
Percentage of teaching by practitioners
Scope of teaching which is covered by lecturers from the practice world (e.g. industry or service companies)
Percentage of teaching by practitioners, master's
Scope of teaching which is covered by lecturers from the practice world (e.g. industry or service companies)
Practical elements in the degree course
Indicates which practical elements (e.g. compulsory practical semester, practical events) are integrated in the degree course.
Practice oriented teaching formats in bachelor's degree courses
Lists practice oriented teaching formats in bachelor's degree courses, e.g. case studies, project seminars or lectures given by practicioners
Practice oriented teaching formats in master's degree courses
Lists practice oriented teaching formats in master's degree courses, e.g. case studies, project seminars or lectures given by practicioners
Professional qualification for architects
Indicates if and how the architecture-courses at the department qualify an EU/UNESCO certified architect
Professors with own engineering company
Proportion of professors with an own engineering office
Share of professors with work experience
Share of professors with ten jears or longer work experience outside of university
Support during practical semester
Students assessed the support during the practical phase, ist organisation, the preparation and evaluation of the practical phase as well as the links with the theoretical phases. Index made up of several individual opinions, on a scale of 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad).
Support for founders
Describes, how students and alumni seeking to found an enterprise are supported by the department and /or the university
Tools used to integrate theoretical and practice phases
Specification by faculties of tools designed to ensure integration of theoretical and practical phases, for instance pre- or post-practical courses.
The library is important for research for written examinations and papers. The number and equipment of the computer and laboratory places also decides how quickly one can study. That is why CHE examined the quality of the equipment and assessed the opinion of the professors and students.
Students of Human Medicine gave an assessment about, inter alia: availability, state of treatment chairs and their technical equipment; Index made up of several individual opinions, on a scale from 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad).
Equipment of the work places
Information of the departments regarding the equipment of the work places for architecture students
Students assessed the hard and software equipment, maintenance and care and the access times as well as the availability of computer workstations that they can use in their studies; Index made up of several individual opinions, on a scale of 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad).
Students in Engineering (apart from Architecture) and Natural Sciences assessed the equipment and state of laboratory workstations; Index made up of several individual opinions, on a scale of 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad).
Students assessed among others the availability of the required literature, the stock of books and specialist publications as well as the user support; Index made up of several individual opinions, on a scale of 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad).
Number and accessability of student work places
Number of places and the accessability of student work places in architecture
Students of Human Medicine gave an assessment about, inter alia: availability and state of simulation rooms, head phantoms and technical equipment; Index made up of several individual opinions, on a scale from 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad).
Provision of instruments for clinical studies
Are the dentistry instruments in clinical studies provided by the faculty (free of charge / subject to charge)?
Provision of instruments pre-clinical
Are the instruments for dentistry in pre-clinical studies provided by the faculty (free of charge / subject to charge)?
Students assessed lecture theatres and seminar rooms in respect of the state of the rooms and their technical equipment; Index made up of several individual opinions, on a scale of 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad).
Law students assessed the availabilty and technical equipment of work stations for self-learning. Assessments were made on a scale from 1-very good to 6-very bad
Condition, technical equipment, ratio of numbers of places to number of users and integration of skills labs into theoretical teaching units. Index of several individual judgements, rated by students on a six-level scale from 'very good' to 'very poor'.
Special features regarding the equipment
The faculties should be given here and whether they have special equipment characteristics such as e.g. research laboratories, libraries or electronic learning aids.
Special features of the department / university regarding the sport facilities
Variety and accessibility of sports facilities. Condition and size of sports hall, sports field and swimming bath in relation to the number of users. Index of several individual judgements, rated by students on a six-level scale from 'very good' to 'very poor'.
The business psychology students assessed the psychological inventories available in the library, the laboratories for experiments as well as the statistics and survey software available at their departments. Assessments were made on a scale from 1-very good to 6-very bad
Treatment- and Simulation-units
Number and age of the treatment-units and number of the simulation-units at the departments in dentistry
Students gave an assessment of the state of the student workstations, the availability of places, as well as the technical equipment; Index made up of several individual opinions, on a scale of 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad).
Some prospective students, who in the long term are aiming at a doctor''''s degree or are interested in working as a student assistant, look for a research-orientated tertiary institution. It was determined how much third party funding is available, where the most doctor''''s degrees are undertaken and published and how many patents have been submitted.
Citations per publication
Average number of citations per publication. The number of citations per publications states how often the publications of the scientists of the faculty were on average quoted by other academics, meaning how pivotal the published contributions were to research.
Cooperative doctoral degrees (in three years)
PhDs completed in a period of three years in cooperation with a university and in collaboration with a professor of this department are counted.
Doctorates per professor
The average number of doctorates per year in the six semesters prior to the questionnaire in relation to the number of professors. The number of doctorates is an indicator of the promotion of new generation of academic s, but also for the research intensity in a faculty.
Further information on research activities
Gives further information about the research achievements at the faculty/departament
Habilitation treatises in ten years
Number of habilitation treatises in a ten-year-period
Habilitation treatises per ten professors
Average number of habilitation treatises completed per ten professors per year in the last three years.
Integration of theory and practice
Describes measures to integrate theory and practice within the degree course
Networking with other institutions
Networking with other institutions in the fields science, economy, politics and civil Society assessed by professors of the faculty
Publications per academic
The number of publications per academic and year in a 3-year period. The number of publications per academic gives information on the publication activity in the faculty. This is an important indicator for research for a series of subjects.
Publications per professor
Number of published scientific articles per professor and year in a 3-year period. The number of publications per professor gives information on the publication activity in the faculty. This is an important indicator for research for a series of subjects. Different databases and sources were consulted for the bibliometric analyses as well as different processes of selection and weighting of types of publication, in order to consider the differences between the different subject cultures. In Business Administration and Economics publication points based on a journal weighting and a 10-year period are displayed. For these subjects, no concrete value is depicted for single faculties, but a range of values within the respective rank group.
Publications per professor in Business Administration
Number of weighted scientific articles per professor and year in a 10-year period. For each university, publication points based on a journal weighting and a 10-year period are calculated. These points are divided by the number of professors in Business Administration. This indicator gives information on the publication activity in the faculty. For single faculties, no concrete value is depicted, but a range of values within the respective rank group.
Publications per professor in Economics
Number of weighted scientific articles per professor and year in a 10-year period. For each university, publication points based on a journal weighting and a 10-year period are calculated. These points are divided by the number of professors in Economics. This indicator gives information on the publication activity in the faculty. For single faculties, no concrete value is depicted, but a range of values within the respective rank group.
Research profile (distribution of PhD theses)
Which tertiary institutions are the leading ones according to the opinion of the professors in research. Naming the own tertiary institution was not taken into consideration.
Research topics reflected in teaching
Shows, which topics from the research of the faculty are reflected in teaching.
Special features regarding research activities
It shows here which particular research focuses, methods or co-operation are to be found in the faculty. This is particularly interesting for students who want to specialise in a certain area and are looking for direct contact to research in this area.
Special features regarding research and development
Special features of the faculty (e.g. key research areas, special projects)
Special features regarding the support of junior scientists
Measures taken by the department to support junior scientists
Teaching staff at the department
Shows the amout of teaching staff (full-time-aquivalent) that is employed in the core area of the subject at the department.
Teaching staff in core subjects
Teaching staff at the department that covers a certain core subject of the discipline
Third party funds per academic
Third party funds from industry, foundations, DFG etc. (in thousand euros) in relation to the number of academics (without third party fund places). This is an indicator for the research achievement of the faculty.The research monies from external sponsors (i.e. DFG, Foundations, BMBF), i.e. monies that do not originate from the college budget are related to the number of academics (on budget locations), in order to do justice to the different sizes of faculties.
Third party funds per professor
This is an indicator for the research achievement of the faculty.The research monies from external sponsors (i.e. DFG, Foundations, BMBF), i.e. monies that do not originate from the college budget are related to the number of professors in order to do justice to the different faculty sizes.
The study shows which institutions are particularly committed in this increasingly important area. Where are foreign language degree courses offered? How comprehensive is the offered range of foreign languages? Will my studies be recognised by higher education institutions abroad?
Combined study programme with foreign HEI
Combined study programme with foreign HEI Information about, if a joint study programme with foreign partner universities exists and if an agreement was made about the reciprocal recognition of credits and certificates.
Exchange universities for stay abroads
Indicates up to 10 foreign universities where students from the department most frequently undergo a stay abroad
International orientation, bachelor's
International orientation of courses, composition of different facts (depending on subject): obligatory stays abroad/joint degree programme; percentage of international students; percentage of classes given in foreign language, share of courses in intercultural competence, additionally for Commercial/Business Law: percentage of classes given in international law, for physics: share of foreign language in working groups . A certain number of points can be gathered from these areas. In 2018 the result of the study programmme with most students is displayed on the department level. Since 2019, the weighted average is shown taking into account the number of students and the single course results.
International orientation: Credits for courses in intercultural competence
One evaluation criterion of the indicator "International orientation"
International orientation, master's
International orientation of course(s), composition of different facts (depending on subject): obligatory stays abroad/joint degree programme; percentage of international students; percentage of classes given in foreign language, courses in intercultural competence and additionally for Commercial/Business Law: percentage of classes given in international law, additionally for physics: share of foreign language in working groups. A certain number of points can be gathered from these areas. In 2018 the result of the programmme with most students is displayed on the department level. Since 2019, the weighted average is displaced at departmental level, taking into account the number of students and the individual course results.
International orientation of the degree course
International orientation of course(s), composition of different facts (depending on subject): obligatory stays abroad/joint degree programme; percentage of international students; percentage of classes given in foreign language, share of courses in intercultural competence and additionally for Commercial/Business Law: percentage of classes given in international law, additionally for physics: share of foreign language in working groups. A certain number of points can be gathered from these areas. In 2018 the result of the programmme with most students is displayed on the department level. Since 2019, the weighted average is shown taking into account the number of students and the single course results.
International orientation: Share in foreign language
One evaluation criterion of the indicator "International orientation"
International orientation: Students mobility
One evaluation criterion of the indicator "International orientation"
International orientation: Studies abroad
One evaluation criterion of the indicator "International orientation"
Universities with whom a joint study programme with joint-degree exists
Mandatory study period abroad
Does the programme include a mandatory study period abroad (yes/no)?
Number of credits for international law
Percentage of credits for courses in european law, international law, IPR, international business law, comparative law, foreign law
Amount of students of the department studying abroad
Proportion of international students
Percentage of foreign students out of total student population. The proportion of international students is an indicator for the internationality of the higher education institutions. Not included are those students without German nationality, who gained their qualification for admission to higher education in Germany (so-called "foreigners with German education").
Share of anglophone research groups
Indicates the share of research groups of a subject in percent that communicate predominantly in English. In physics it is aspect of the rating "International Orientation".
Share of ECTS in international law
Number of points awarded for the share of ECTS from lectures that can be gathered in international law
Share of foreign language courses
Share of foreign language courses in the degree course
Special features regarding the international orientation
Description of the characteristics of international orientation on department level
Support for stays abroad
Students assessed the attractiveness of the exchange programme, the attractiveness of the partner universities, the support and guidance in preparing the stay abroad as well as the financial support (scholarships, exemption from study fees) among others; Index made up of several individual opinions, on a scale of 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad).
The person who selects a tertiary institution would like to know what chances there are of a successful and fast degree. For this reason the average duration of studies and the average grade in exams were examined amongst other things.
Proportion of law graduates from this department that receives the grade "fully satisfactory" (well above average) oder better
Graduates per year
Average number of graduates per year. In order to know how many people are in a course of study, not only the number of beginners or the total number of students is interesting, but also how many students are taking the final examination. The events in the main study stage are often no longer so oversubscribed, as the events in the first semester. This indicator shows how many persons per year complete their degree.
Graduations in appropriate time
Proportion of degree course graduates who completed their studies in the standard study period (plus one or two semesters). A high number indicates that this degree course can actually be completed in the standard period of study.
Graduations in appropriate time, master's
Proportion of master degree course graduates who completed their studies in an appropriate amount of time, namely the standard period of study plus one semester.
Graduations in appropriate time, undergraduate degrees
Proportion of undergraduate degree course graduates who completed their studies in an appropriate amount of time, namely the standard period of study plus one or two semesters (dependend on the subject area).
Standard period of study
Indicates the duration of studies stipulated by the study regulations for the degree course. In most cases however, the actual duration of studies deviates from the standard period of study.
Study duration (median)
Median value of the study duration, i.e. the number of semester after which half of the graduates have graduated.
Number of credits in the entire programme of studies
An important question for prospective students: Where do I feel most comfortable? More than 240 higher education locations are described. It is a city or a small town? How high is the student proportion in the population? How do the students live: In a shared apartment or with parents? How do most of them get to university? What sports are offered? What costs arise?
Proportion of bachelor-students (in percent) at the higher education institution location
Proportion of students that come to the university mostly by bicycle. A questionnaire given to the students ascertains, for each university location, which type of transport chiefly used by the students from their residence to their tertiary institution (walking, cycle, car/motorbike, public transport). The indicator shows how many percent of the students chiefly get to college by bicycle. As multiple mentions are possible, the details for the individual means of transport add together to more than 100%.
Proportion of Students mainly using a car or motorcycle for the way to the university. A questionnaire given to the students ascertains, for each university location, which type of transport is chiefly used by the students from their residence to their tertiary institution (walking, cycle, car/motorbike, public transport). The indicator shows the percentage of the students who travel to the tertiary institution mainly by bar or motorbike. As multiple mentions are possible, the details for the individual means of transport add together to more than 100%.
Engineering Science (incl. Computer Science)
Proportion of students (in percent) at the tertiary institution in an engineering science degree course (Source: Special assessment by the Federal Office for Statistics).
Foreign language courses
Foreign language center and offered langauges
Proportion of students (in percent) at the higher education institution location in the subject group Language and Civilisation studies (Source: Special assessment by the Federal Office for Statistics).
Kind of Institution and funding body
Shows the type of institution (full university, university of applied science or university of cooperate education) as the funding body (public, private, churchly) of the institution.
Law, Economic and Social Sciences
Proportion of students (in percent) at the higher education institution location in the subject group Law, Economics and Social sciences (Source: Special assessment by the Federal Office for Statistics).
Proportion of master-students (in percent) at the higher education institution location
Medicine, Health Science
Proportion of students (in percent) at the tertiary institution location in the subject group Medicine, Health Science (Source: Special assessment by the Federal Office for Statistics).
Natural Sciences, Mathematics
Proportion of students (in percent) at the higher education institution location in the subject group Mathematics and Natural Sciences (Source: Special assessment by the Federal Office for Statistics).
Opening hours central student counselling
Shows the opening hours of the central student councelling office
Proportion of students (in percent) at the higher education location in other study subjects (e.g. sport) (Source: Special assessment by the Federal Office for Statistics).
Other types of degrees
Proportion of other types of degree-students (in percent) at the higher education institution location
Proportion of students living with their parents. A questionnaire given to the students ascertains, how the students at each university location live. The percentage proportion is given of those students who live with their parents, in student accommodation, in a private apartment or in a shared-apartment. "Private" apartment also covers living alone, as well as with a partner and/or child in a rented apartment. Further, not stated forms of living are "sub-letting" and "in own apartment"
The number of inhabitants of the place where the universities is/are located (Source: Federal Office for Statistics)
Proportion of pre-bologna-degree-students (in percent) at the higher education institution location
Proportion of students living in a privat apartment. A questionnaire given to the students ascertains, for each university location, how the students in that area live. The percentage proportion is given of those students who live with their parents, in student accommodation, in a private apartment or in a shared-apartment. "Private" apartment also covers living alone, as well as with a partner and/or child in a rented apartment. Further, not stated forms of living are "sub-letting" and "in own apartment"
Percentage of students who mostly use public transport to travel to university. A questionnaire given to the students ascertains, for each university location, which type of transport is chiefly used by the students from their residence to their tertiary institution (walking, cycle, car/motorbike, public transport). The indicator shows the percentage of the students who in the main use public transport. As multiple mentions are possible, the details for the individual means of transport add together to more than 100%.
Rent for student accommodation supplied by the Studentenwerk
The range of the monthly rent (incl. extras) for living accommodation in the regional student services.
Residence places supplied by the Studentenwerk
Number of student residence places supplied by the student union. Places provided by other (e.g. private) institutions are not counted here.
The amount of semester fee to be paid by the student when enrolling/ re-registering.
Proportion of students living in a shared apartment. A questionnaire given to the students ascertains, for each university location, how the students in that area live. The percentage proportion is given of those students who live with their parents, in student accommodation, in a private apartment or in a shared-apartment. "Private" apartment also covers living alone, as well as with a partner and/or child in a rented apartment. Further, not stated forms of living are "sub-letting" and "in own apartment"
Special features regarding the library
Special features of the library(system) as decribed by the university.
Special features regarding university sports
The indicator shows the special features of the general university sports programme
Proportion of students living in a student accomodation. A questionnaire given to the students ascertains, for each university location, how the students in that area live. The percentage proportion is given of those students who live with their parents, in student accommodation, in a private apartment or in a shared-apartment. "Private" apartment also covers living alone, as well as with a partner and/or child in a rented apartment. Further, not stated forms of living are "sub-letting" and "in own apartment"
Students at this campus
The number of students at the respective university campus is given here. This number therefore might differ from the total number of students at the institution.
Students at universities in this town
Total number of students studying at higher education institutions in this town. This means, the number does not necessarily equal the number of students actually living in this town.
Shows the ratio (in percent) of students at the local universitites in relation to the total population of the town.
Teacher qualification degree
Percentage of students at this university (campus) studying for a teacher qualification degree
Total number of Students
The overall number of students enrolled in the university.
The amount of the fee to be paid per semester, per year or for the whole course of studies is given. Tuition fees usually need to be paid at private tertiary institutions. The amount of the fee to be paid per semester, per year or for the whole course of studies is given.
Proportion of students who walk to the university. A questionnaire given to the students ascertains, for each university location, which type of transport is chiefly used by the students from their residence to their tertiary institution (walking, cycle, car/motorbike, public transport). The indicator shows the percentage of the students who chiefly walk to college. As multiple mentions are possible, the details for the individual means of transport add together to more than 100%.
Year of foundation
States the year the higher education institution was founded. The year of foundation gives rise to conclusions of the "style" or the self-image of the higher education institution. There is no good or bad in this, everyone has decide for himself, whether he would like to study at a time-honoured traditional university, or at a relatively young reform university or college.
The size of the area of studies and the combination of the student body can also play a decisive role in the selection of a tertiary institution. Am I going to be one of 50 students or one of 5000 students? How high is the proportion of women amongst the fellow students?
Indicates the ratio of applicants to the number of study places.
First-year students per year
Number of first-year students in a year, shown by the number of students in the 1st and 2nd subject-related semester always in the Winter Semester.
Proportion of male and female students in study programme
Number of master degree students
Number of students in Master's degree courses at the faculty
Number of students
Total number of students in the respective degree course. Am I one of 20 or one of 2000 students? Are the events mostly small group work or oversubscribed lectures? What is good or bad however is chiefly dependent on you yourself: Some people like an intimate atmosphere, where everyone knows one another; others only feel better amongst a large number of like-minded people.This indicator shows the total number of people in the respective course of studies (without minor subject students).
Students in cooperative education
Number of students in cooperative education degree courses at the department
Teacher qualification students
Number of students for teaching-qualification at the department
Total number of students
Total number of students taking the subject in the department, not including minor subject students and teaching students
First-year students are interested in the opinion of professors and students of their faculty. Therefore not only were facts included in the survey, but students were asked their opinion for example also of the quality of the range of courses and the support situation.
Lists the admission requirements for a this course of study.
Arrangements of special exercises at the department
Information on arrangements of special exercises provided by the department
Assistance with exam preparation
Students evaluate the repetitions offered by the university as well as exam courses.
Characteristics of assistance to differently abled persons
Description of the measures taken by the department to assist differently abled students/persons
Characteristics of diversity advancement
Description of the measures taken by the department to advance diversity among the students and staff
Students assessed amongst other things the clarity of learning objectives for the clerkship, the possibility to treat of a variety of different patients, guidance and feedback by the clinical staff; Index made up of several individual opinions, on a scale of 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad).
Compulory/compulsory optional credits from different subjects
The profile of the degree course is described by the minimum number or required credits as well as the maximum number of possible credits in compulsory/compulsory optional modules in different subjects.
Cooperative education: branches
Indicator provides information on the sectors and training locations involved in the study programme
Cooperative education: contact persons
The indicator provides information on which contact persons are available at the university and at the practice partner
Cooperative education: Content linking
The indicator provides information on how the study contents at the university are linked with those at the practice partner
Cooperative education: Courses
The indicator provides information on whether courses are only offered to dual students or also to other non-dual students
Cooperative education: outcome control
The indicator provides information on whether there is a joint study outcome check between the university and the practice partner
Cooperative education: Salary
Indicator provides information on the salary in dual studies at the start of studies
Cooperative education: Selection process
Indicator provides information on who (university and/or practice partner) is carrying out the selection process for the study programme
Cooperative education: student exchange in theory/practical phase
Proportion of students who go abroad during the theoretical phase of their studies and proportion of students who go abroad during the practical phase in percent
Cooperative education: Supervision at the different learning venues
The indicator provides information on how supervision takes place at different learning venues in the dual system of study
Coordination of theory and practice phases
Students evaluate the coordination of theory and practice phases in dual studies, e.g. organization, coordination of learning objectives and content, involving practical experience into the studies.
Students assessed amongst other things the breadth of content, international orientation and the interdisciplinary relevance of the range of courses; Index made up of several individual opinions, on a scale of 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad).
Distribution of the coursework between coursework at the university, courses at the professional school, practical training and self-study
Credits aquired at the practice partner
Number of credits acquired at the learning venue Practice partners
Credits for laboratory practicals
Number of credits awarded for laboratory practicals. Particularly in natural science subjects, a large number of courses are held in laboratories. The indicator shows the share of studies prospectively earmarked for practical laboratory courses.
Dovetailing of pre-clinic and clinic studies
Students gave an assessment of the dovetailing of the pre-clinical and clinical training for human medicine / dentistry, as well as the relevance to practical life or the pre-clinical academic studies; Index made up of several individual opinions, on a scale of 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad).
Dual course of study: contract modalities
Description of contract modalities in cooperative education programmes
Dual course of study: success rate
Success rate: Share of graduates who are in employment within the first three months after graduation
Multidimensional fact indicator made up of three dimensions: (1) Specific offers for exam preparation, (2) training of the concrete exam performance, and (3) additional offers. The facts used for the assessment are obtained at department level. Since this is a rating procedure, the group assignment is based on fixed point values. Assignment to the top group is carried out with at least 8 points; the middle group is reached with at least 3 points; a department is placed in the final group if less than 3 points are reached.
Exam preparation - additional services
Additional offers to support exam preparation (including: Mentoring programs, Individual exam consultation hours/clinic for exams, Individual offers for exam discussion, Coaching offers, Group offers for exam discussion, Special rooms for exam candidates, Other)
Exam Preparation - Training
Training of the exam situation (simulation of the oral examination and its range of offers, examinations and their range of offers)
Students evaluate the possibilities of repetition of exams, the temporal distribution of examination dates as well as the performance feedback druing the semester. Index from multiple single judgements, evaluation on a scale ranging from 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad). The mean of judgements is presented respectively for the departments.
Exams in Bachelor degree programmes
Shows, how exams in the bachelor programmes are mainly organised
Exams in master degree programmes
Shows, how exams in the master programmes are mainly organised
exams preparation - specific offers
Specific offers to support exam preparation (offer of repetitories/examinations and their intervals, offer of small working groups and their intervals)
Students evaluate, amongst others, the preparation and organisation of the excursions, the availability of excursionslots and the professional supervision through the guides; evaluation on a scale ranging from 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad). The mean of judgements is presented respectively for the departments.
Scope of excursions, measured in ECTS
Extent of interlinking
Ratingindator which messures the extent of interlinking in dual studyprogrammes
Extent of interlinking: Institutionel level
The rating indicator uses various dimensions to provide information on the "degree of interlinking" in the dual study system
Extent of interlinking of this programme
Ratingindator which messures the extent of interlinking in dual studyprogrammes
Extent of Interlinking: study contents
Dimension study contents of the rating indicator "extent of interlinking"
Extent of interlinking: Support
Dimension Support of the rating indicator "extent of interlinking"
Special features of the study programme for extra-curricular activities
Extracurricular events organised by the student association
Shows, which extracurricular events are organised by the student association
Further degree courses of the department
Lists further degree courses the department offers which are not included in the ranking.
Further information about study entry phase
Link to further information on the web page of the university
Guidance services for freshmen
Events, projects and material for study entry that are offered by the faculty and serve as an orientation for freshman.
Guidance services for pupils
Events, projects and material for study entry that are offered by the faculty and serve as an orientation for pupils.
Number of Credits from other disciplines than the core subject.
Shows, if key skills are taugth in a seperate module or if the are taught within other modules.
Students of physics, chemistry and biologoy evaluate, amongst others, the introduction into experimentation; index from single judgements, evaluation on a scale ranging from 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad). The mean of judgements is presented respectively for the departments.
Mode of admission
Information, whether the programme has a limited number of places. If yes, the number of available places is given.
Notable study elements/project-based studies
Information of the departments on special elements, like project-based studies featured in the course
optional extracurricular qualifications
Further education programmes offered by the department, e.g. licences or certificates
Orientation offers of companies
Events and projects (trade fairs, entrepreneur days), which are offered by companies and serve the information and orientation of prospective students and first-year undergraduate students.
Other special features
other special features
Overall study situation
The students assessed the study situation in total in their faculty on a scale of 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad). This indicator is an individual question not an index made up of different individual questions.
Possible combinations for training as a psychotherapist
Shows, if the necessary qualification for the admission for the training as a psychotherapist can be aquired by the courses offered by the department.
Possible foci in this degree programme
Possible foci of the master programme. For for some subjec areas the maximum number of credits for each focus is also displayed.
Indicates whether and to what extent, period and area of activity a preliminary internship must be provided.
Specification of the faculty area, whether the "Quality seal for psychological Bachelor courses at German-speaking universities" of the German society for psychology for Bachelor study courses was assigned. The quality seal is awarded to those psychological study programs that follow the recommendations of the German Society for Psychology in terms of structure and content and meet certain minimum standards in terms of their scientific and research orientation. The seal is awarded for a period of five years, after which it must be re-applied for by the university.
Research orientation is evaluated by students considering traning of scientific thinking in generel, inspiration for own critical reflection as well as inclusion of central and innovative research results, among others. Index of ndividual judgements, rated by students on a six-level scale from 'very good' to 'very poor'.
Return rate of the questionnaires
Return rate of the questionnaires in the student survey
For teaching qualification subjects the index contains judgements about, how subject related didactics were taught as well as preparation and evaluation of the practical school studies.
Students evaluate introduction to methods of scientific/ artistic work, teaching of interesting and surprising knowledge on architecture, inspiration for own critical reflection on architecture, inclusion of central and innovative research results in architecture and training of scientific/ artistic thinking in general. Index made up of several individual opinions, on a scale of 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad).
Scope of compulsory laboratory courses
Extent of laboratory internships during studies, measured in semester hours per week (SWS)
Share of external repetitions visited
Share of students visiting exetrnal repetitions (estimated from the student survey).
Special features of this degree course
Indicates the special features of the respective degree course (university details).
Special features regarding fresher support
Description of the special features for the support of first-semester students at the department
Special features regarding teaching
Special features of the department regarding the teaching in the different degree courses.
Specific profile of the department/faculty
Description of the specific profile of the department/faculty on the basis of different specified categories (multiple answers are possible)
Specific profile of the study programme
Description of the specific profile of the study programme on the basis of different specified categories (multiple answers are possible)
Students made an assessment (among others): access to compulsory events, matching of course contents; Index made up of several individual opinions, on a scale of 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad).
Study quality funds for excursions
Shows if federal money from the "Studienqualitätspakt" has been spend to support excursions
In some subjects additional information about what subject area the course of study is explicitly allocated to.
Support for study entry phase at the faculty
Summary of offerings for support in the study entry phase at the faculty
Support in bedside teaching
The students assessed the support in bedsite teaching on a scale of 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad).
Support in studies
Students evaluate Help in facilitating networking among students, mentor systems, information concerning the organisation of their course, information services to the semester/ course materials. Index made up of several individual opinions, on a scale of 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad).
Teacher qualification programmes
Indicates, if teacher qualification degree courses (for German schools) are offered by the department.
Students gave an assessment for, inter alia: discussion of homework, social climate between studends and teachers etc.; Index made up of several individual opinions, on a scale of 1 (very good) to 6 (very bad).
Teaching of interdisciplinary competence
The students evaluate, amongst others, the qualification to communicate (if necessary in a foreign language) about topics of the subject together wirh colleagues and the mediation of the capacity for teamwork. For a top rating none of the underlying criteria is allowed to be rated in the final group.
Teaching of medical diagnosis abilities
Special features of the dentistry-departments regarding the teaching of medical diagnosis abilities
Teaching of methodological competence
Students assessed knowledge of safety and environmental concerns and legal bases, preperation, interpration, evaluation and informed assessment of scientific and technical data as well as the ability to independently solve scientific / application-oriented problems and presentation of results, amongst others. For a top rating none of the underlying criteria is allowed to be rated in the final group.
Teaching of technical/professional competence
The students evaluate, amongst others, the mathematical and scientific basic skills and the knowledge within the core subjects. For a top rating none of the underlying criteria is allowed to be rated in the final group.
Distribution of credits for the course over the various subjects
Total score for support in the study entry phase
This indicator covers various support measures for students in the introductory phase. It is composed of the four evaluation aspects "competence alignment/competence development", "orientation", "flexibilisation" and "support and guidance". Criteria have been developed for the individual aspects, which are evaluated with different points and combined into an overall value. The group allocation is based on fixed point values for the individual aspects.
Transition to Master's studies
The transition from previous studies to a Master's programme. The focus here is on recognition of studies and qualifications and the extent to which courses are built up on preceding curricula. The students of a consecutive Master's programme rated these aspects on a six-level scale from 'very good' to 'very poor'.
Type of degree course
Indicates the type of degree course (e.g. undergraduate attendance degree course or postgraduate course).
Simply click on the most frequently asked questions regarding the ranking to get the answers.
The CHE Centre for Higher Education is an independent, non-profit institution, which develops proposals for the improvement of the higher education system and simultaneously provides information for students and prospective students. The CHE is supported both by the Bertelsmann Stiftung and the German Rectors' Conference as equal partners. Since its establishment, the linkage to higher education institutions is vital for the CHE and it has even grown due to the CHE's integration in various networks of the academic landscape. For more information, please visit www.che.de.
Yes, the ranking is in accordance with the standards of the empirical research sciences and especially complies with the scientific standards for rankings. Design, sampling and data analysis of all partial surveys match the usual standards of empirical social research. The methodical principles (reference to the field of study, multidimensionality, development of ranking groups) have been praised as exemplary in various international comparative studies (e.g. European University Association (EUA); OECD). Furthermore the ranking does meet the criteria for 'good' rankings, which were developed by the International Ranking Expert Group (IREG) of the UNESCO.
The CHE develops and decides on the the ranking criteria in consultation with the advisory board, which consists of representatives of the corresponding subjects (representatives of the faculty conferences, expert associations and student representatives). The applied criteria differ depending both on the subject as well as on the type of higher education institution (Universities, Universities of Applied Sciences, Technical Colleges). Especially those criteria are chosen, which for students choosing their higher education institution could potentially be interesting to know.
The different criteria are not weighted among themselves, since there is no overall result being calculated for a single institution, department or programme. There would be neither a theoretical nor an empirical basis for such an aggregated value. Instead, the ranking is multidimensional and solely shows the individual criteria. The decision, which criteria is important, is left for the users, who can create their personal ranking according to their own priorities.
The CHE ranking offers a comprehensive display of the department's profile on the basis of the variety of data: comparative (ranked) indicators as well as descriptive information. The descriptive information are solely provided by the departments, so that they can highlight their profile and the features of their programmes themselves.
The ranking lists for each subject area initially show four to six selected criteria, which equal the criteria used for the print-version of the ranking in the ZEIT Studienführer. Up to 34 different criteria are ranked for each subject referring e.g. to the make-up of students, study success, international orientation, equipment or research activities at the faculty. As values of different criteria are not combined in CHE ranking, there are consequently up to 34 different ranking lists for each subject. For an initial orientation, we have therefore selected criteria of which we assume that it is of special interest. The selected indicators vary for the individual subjects, but are generally composed of the overall opinion of the students, the professors' opinion, a research indicator, such as the number of PhDs, publications or third-party funds, an equipment indicator, e.g. the student opinion on the library or the number of therapy rooms, and another fact (support relation) or opinion (e.g. students' opinion on the organisation of studies or on support by teaching staff). On the Internet, the Ranking Overview takes the user to the detail pages, which show the indicators individually with the corresponding values and ranking groups.
The data presented in the university ranking is updated every three years and thus comes from different surveys. In 2018, the subjects of computer science, mathematics, physics, pharmacy, political science, medicine, dentistry, nursing science, earth sciences, geography as well as sports science, chemistry and biology were examined. In the 2019 ranking the data was updated for the subjects English/American Studies, German Studies, Romance Studies, Education, Psychology, Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, Mechatronics, Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering, Process Engineering, Environmental Engineering. In the current ranking 2020, the subjects Business Administration, Economics, Business Studies, Industrial Engineering and Management, Business Information Technology, Business Law, Law, Social Work and for the first time Business Psychology were examined.
The enormous amount of work necessary for such a complex ranking makes a yearly update of the data for all subjects impossible. This would be beyond the capacities of the CHE and the capacities of the universities, which assist with a considerable amount of preparatory work for the ranking project. Except for a few individual cases, changes at universities do not take place with the speed that would make an annual update necessary. In addition, most cases do not show any values referring to one year, but average values across several years (e.g. publications, study time). The figure-work of these values is unlikely to seriously change within one year. In addition, it is extremely unlikely that there would be substantial changes, e.g. for publications or the duration of studies within one year.
The subjects included in the ranking cover the degree courses of around 80 percent of first-year students. The subjects that are not included are, for the most part, subjects that are only offered at a few universities, or for which only a relatively small number of students per university have enrolled.
The CHE University Ranking is always published at the beginning of May. In May 2020, the data for the economic sciences, social work, business law, business informatics, business psychology and law were published. Currently, research is underway for the CHE University Ranking 2021, in which the data for the subjects Computer Science, Mathematics, Physics, Pharmacy, Political Science, Medicine, Dentistry, Nursing Science, Earth Sciences, Geography as well as Sports Science, Chemistry and Biology are updated. For more information on the data collection process see www.che-ranking.de (in German).
Currently, the CHE ranking includes the indicator "Research Reputation" only for a few subjects at universities. The indicator is displayed for the following subjects: business administration, economics, medicine, dentistry, geography, geoscience and political science. The indicator reflects the faculties' reputation among the professors of the subject. For the Research Reputation the professors are asked, which universities they consider as "leading" in their subject. Within the academic subjects, there is, as a rule, a clear picture about the standing or the reputation of the respective faculties. Even if the professors do not know all the faculties of their subject in detail, there is nevertheless this reputation hierarchy in their heads. This indicator reflects the opinion of the professors; it is not an indicator of the universities' efficiency! A faculty's reputation may, but does not have to, match its factual achievements in research. There may be faculties, which still live off achievements from the past; but vice versa, there are also faculties, whose achievements are not yet recognised among the professors. Nevertheless, this indicator may be meaningful information - not least as the reputation of a university is also linked to the graduates. The universities, which are mentioned by at least 25 percent of the professors, are constituting the leading group.
Higher education ranking is often accused of only including subjective opinions and judgement about universities, which cannot paint a "real" picture of the situation at the universities. This reproach applies to some rankings where e.g. only students or professors or employers have been asked for their assessments. It does not, however, apply to the CHE/ZEIT OnlineRanking. The approach of our ranking is to obtain a precise and subtle picture of the study conditions and achievements of the universities from different perspectives. This includes assessments and opinions of the students about studying at their own university as well as facts. University is about students - they can competently assess study conditions and teaching as users or "customers" of the universities. Yet ranking covers a great deal more. We have collected a number of facts about the universities from different data sources: The indicators being ranked include - according to subject - e.g. the average duration of studies, final marks, failure rates, the ratio of students and professors, and also indicators of the research activities, such as the number of PhDs, publications or the amount of acquired research funds.
The CHE has - in contrast to some other rankings - deliberately omitted to ask employers for the "universities". There are several reasons for this decision. For one thing, the reputation of the university where a student has graduated is not as important for applications as is sometimes suggested. There are also methodical reasons that are points against surveying employers. Firstly, such a survey would in many cases only reinforce existing prejudices. Frequently, the surveyed persons name the university where they themselves have studied. It has happened more than once that employers have described a university as a top institution in rankings, even though it did not even offer that subject.
In addition to facts about various areas, the higher education ranking contains a number of student opinions. In contrast to the frequently uttered opinion that they are purely "Well-being indicators", they are perfectly meaningful, provided that the questions are asked with sufficient detail. Therefore, a library regarded as poor in the eyes of students is usually also given poor assessments by professors. On the other hand, repeated examinations of the same subject show that students' opinions hardly change at most universities. Actual improvements, however, such as a faculty moving into new premises, are clearly reflected here; a sign that students do assess according to objective criteria.
In science, research results are made public in particular via publications. Bibliometric analyses are used to show the publication activity, and if necessary, the publication effect of scientists at universities in the subjects examined. On principle, the publication analysis carried out for the CHE higher education ranking is not based on a full survey of all publications of the period considered, but on queries in subject databases, whose contents satisfy at least certain quality demands. The uniform covering of the publications for any faculties involved is more important for relative ranking than completeness. Publications by professors and other scientific staff are queried (in medicine and dentistry only publications by professores); the indicator "Publications per Scientist", "Publications per Professor" or "Publications per Year" is shown in the end. If the database used is the (Social) Science Citation Index, the effect of a paper can also be measured on the basis of citations and shown as "citations per publication".
To compare the research activity of faculties, it is possible to find quantitatively measurable figures, which enable meaningful comparisons. In science for example, research results are made public in particular via publications. With the aid of bibliometric analyses, data can be determined such as "Publications per professor" for the publication activity and, if required, "citations per publication" the publication impact. Although it also has to be considered as an input figure, the acquired research money can provide information about the research achievement of a faculty, in particular in engineering, but also in the natural sciences, as the sponsor associates the allocations with the expectation of workable results. As several researchers apply for a limited amount of money, the most promising competitor will get the contract. The faculties that are most active in research can be identified by considering several of these indicators together.
The CHE ranking primarily serves potential students. It is designed to help them choose a suitable HEI and simplify their process of reviewing the higher education landscape. To achieve this, the CHE collects assessments (by students, graduates and professors) and data (e.g. doctoral theses, research funds or publications). The combination of these assessments and facts gives a differentiated picture of the performance of HEIs in teaching and research. Student assessments in the CHE UniversityRanking state how students presently assess the study situation at their HEI (e.g. rooms, libraries, opportunities for study trips abroad, mentoring and tutoring). However, student interviews do not measure the performance of individual students. This means that it is not possible to draw conclusions on the quality of the graduates from the results of a department in the student interviews. This simply means that we can assume that students in a "well-ranked" department discovered better study conditions there. Student interviews expose weaknesses in the study conditions of individual HEIs which might trigger a process of change and improvement from which students will benefit in the end.
In Master programs the number of enrolled students is often too small to achieve an adequate return rate for statistical computations. Nevertheless, in certain fields it is sometimes possible to survey the Master students (e.g. architecture). You can find all subjects for which a masterranking exists at https://ranking.zeit.de/che/en/masterranking
The CHE ranking assigns ranking groups rather than individual numeric ranking positions in a league table. HEIs are allocated to a top group, middle group and bottom group. This is done since the assigning individual ranking positions has the danger to misinterpretate, minor differences in the numerical values of indicators as real differences in quality/performance. League tables suggest that each difference in ranking position marks a real difference and hence they tend to exaggerate the differences between institutions. By contrast, the group ranking method assures that the top and bottom groups can be statistically distinguished clearly from the total average value. However, differences within the groups can be considered insignificant, and for this reason the HEIs within one group are listed in alphabetical order.
In the ranking lists, all universities offering a course in a certain subject are listed. You may also use the search-function.
Courses and subjects not listed can be found at the Higher Education Compass published by the DAAD in cooperation with the German Rectors' Conference
Jochen Wegner (Editor in Chief, responsible with respect to §6 MDStV),
Sabine Hockling (Editorial Project Manager)
Thorsten Pannen (Object Supervisor)
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ZEIT ONLINE GmbH
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CHE University Ranking
Centre for Higher Education
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Managing Director: Prof. Dr. Frank Ziegele
Project team: Petra Giebisch, Dr. Sonja Berghoff,
Cort-Denis Hachmeister, Dr. Nina Horstmann, Marc Hüsch,
Iris Kortmann, Anita Schmitz, Tina Schürmann,
Saskia Ulrich, Vanessa Wecker
The gathering and processing of the data have been conducted by the Centre for Higher Education Development with the required care and using recognised methods. The CHE assumes no liability for the correctness of the data.
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